This Week's News 24.11.17 - SAFEGUARDING SPECIAL
In the eyes of the law, individuals are technically children until they reach their 18th birthday. On reaching 16, children are referred to as young people. Safeguarding is a term which is broader than 'child protection' and relates to the action taken to promote the welfare of children and young people protect them from harm. Safeguarding is everyone's responsibility.
Anxiety and Panic Attacks
Bullying and Harassment
Workplace bullying is verbal, physical, social or psychological abuse by an employer (or manager), another person or group of people at work. Workplace bullying can happen in any type of workplace, from offices to shops, cafes, restaurants, workshops, community groups and government organisations. Bullying certainly looks and feels like harassment. It is harassing, as commonly understood (defined as systematic, annoying, and continued actions which include threats and demands; creating a hostile situation by uninvited and unwelcome verbal or physical conduct). But at work, harassment is a special term.
Bullying and harassment means any unwanted behaviour that makes someone feel intimidated, degraded, humiliated or offended. It is not necessarily always obvious or apparent to others, and may happen in the workplace without an employer's awareness. Bullying and harassment is behaviour that makes someone feel intimidated or offended. Harassment is unlawful under the Equality Act 2010.
Examples of bullying or harassing behaviour include:
- spreading malicious rumours
- unfair treatment
- picking on or regularly undermining someone
- denying someone's training or promotion opportunities
Bullying and harassment can happen:
- by letter
- by email
- by phone
Bullying itself isn't against the law, but harassment is. This is when the unwanted behaviour is related to one of the following:
- gender (including gender reassignment)
- marriage and civil partnership
- pregnancy and maternity
- religion or belief
- sexual orientation
Employees should see if they can sort out the problem informally first. If they can't, they should talk to their:
- human resources (HR) department
- trade union representative
If this doesn't work, they can make a formal complaint using their employer's grievance procedure. If this doesn't work and they're still being harassed, they can take legal action at an employment tribunal. They could also call the Acas (Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service) helpline for advice:
Employers are responsible for preventing bullying and harassment - they're liable for any harassment suffered by their employees. Anti-bullying and harassment policies can help prevent problems. Acas has produced a booklet for employers, including advice on setting up a policy as well as how to recognise, deal with and prevent bullying and harassment. Download 'Bullying and harassment at work: a guide for managers and employers' (PDF, 173KB)
CAMHS stands for Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services. Every Child Matters (2003), and the National Service Framework for Children, Young People and Maternity services (2004), using the four-tier strategic framework for child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS), defines what is required to ensure children and young people receive comprehensive care. This includes the provision of effective early help services which may prevent problems escalating to the point where admission to hospital becomes necessary. CAMHS are the NHS services that assesses and treat young people with emotional, behavioural or mental health difficulties. The structure and operation of CAMHS can appear complex at first as the organisation differs from both traditional secondary care mental health services for adults and the majority of general physical health services for children and young people (specifically in regard to multi-agency relationships and interdependencies). The structure of CAMHS is often best explained in terms of how a child or young person accesses the service, with four 'tiers' of service provision. There are differences in the levels of support and types of intervention offered in the different tiers and also in how each of the tiers is commissioned are specialised services that provide assessment and treatment for children and young people with emotional, behavioural or mental health difficulties. There are four tiers of care. Tiers one to three are community or outpatient-based and commissioned by clinical commissioning groups and local authorities. Tier 4 (Specialised CAMHS) include day and inpatient services and some highly specialist outpatient services including services for children/young people with gender dysphoria; CAMHS for children and young people who are deaf; highly specialised autism spectrum disorder (ASD) services; and highly specialised obsessive compulsive disorder services. These services have, since April 2013, been commissioned directly by NHS England. Within the inpatient element of CAMHS Tier 4 there are several different types of service. Service specifications were developed for these services as part of the 2013/14 NHS standard contract. The general adolescent services specification is an overarching core specification which includes additional requirements for adolescent psychiatric intensive care units, low secure inpatient units, eating disorder services, and inpatient learning disability services. There are separate specifications covering children's inpatient units, specialist ASD services and secure forensic mental health services for young people. The majority of units are those termed Tier 4 CAMHS General Adolescent Units; these units admit young people aged 13-18 years with a range of problems. In some areas Tier 4 General Adolescent Units have a further sub-specialisation into services which aim to offer short-term crisis admissions; a few Tier 4 General Purpose Adolescent Units have an attached or integral high dependency area. Although the majority of young people with anorexia nervosa requiring admission are treated in CAMHS Tier 4 General Adolescent Units, there are a small number of specialist CAMHS Tier 4 Adolescent Eating Disorder Units – these may be linked to a CAMHS Tier 4 General Adolescent Unit or function as a stand-alone service.
Children and Young People Involved in Gangs
The Children's Commissioner for England has published a review of evidence on the subjective wellbeing of children involved in gangs in England. Emerging themes from a review of 7 studies that focussed on the first-hand accounts of children and young people aged under 17, published from 2007 to 2017 include: children did not always join gangs out of choice - some viewed it as an inevitability based on where they lived; status within the gang was important for wellbeing and experience, especially for girls; frequent reports of sexual violence towards young women; and children and young people reported that they felt unable to speak to services for support and protection. When discussing real and hypothetical incidents of sexual violence, boys typically avoided using the label of "rape" and had a blurred understanding of what constituted sexual consent, viewing it as the absence of the word "no".
Children and Young People Referred to the Prevent Programme
The Home Office has published statistics on the number of individuals referred to and supported through the Prevent programme to safeguard vulnerable individuals who are at risk of radicalisation in England and Wales. Statistics show that of the 7,631 individuals referred in 2015/16, 56% were aged 20 or under.
See key findings in the Report.
Child Sexual Exploitation (CSE)
Child sexual exploitation (CSE) is a type of sexual abuse. Children (i.e. those under 18) in exploitative situations and relationships receive something such as gifts, money or affection as a result of performing sexual activities or others performing sexual activities on them. Sexual exploitation can happen to any young person – whatever their background, age, gender, race or sexuality or wherever they live. Risk factors include:
- a history of abuse, particularly sexual abuse
- recent bereavement or loss
- low self-esteem or self-confidence
- being a young carer
- being in or leaving care
- links to a gang through relatives, peers or intimate relationships
- living in a gang-affected neighbourhood
- lacking friends from the same age group
There's still a lot we don't know about why abuse happens, but research has highlighted some similarities among children who have been abused or neglected. These similarities, or risk factors, help us identify children who may be at increased risk of abuse and neglect. Some risk factors are common across all types of abuse and neglect. But they don't mean that abuse will definitely happen. A child who doesn't have any of these risk factors could be abused and a child with multiple risk factors may never experience abuse or neglect. But we do know that having one or more of these issues can increase the risk of harm.
Coping with Bereavement
Disclosure and Barring Service
The Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS) helps employers make safer recruitment decisions and prevent unsuitable people from working with vulnerable groups, including children. It replaces the Criminal Records Bureau (CRB) and Independent Safeguarding Authority (ISA).
All ITS employees are DBS checked.
The DBS is responsible for:
- processing requests for criminal records checks (DBS checks)
- deciding whether it is appropriate for a person to be placed on or removed from a barred list
- placing or removing people from the DBS children's barred list and adults' barred list for England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
The Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006 set out the scope and operation of the vetting and barring scheme.
Drug and alcohol abuse
An eating problem is any relationship with food that individuals find difficult. Food plays an important part in our lives and most of us will spend time thinking about what we eat. Sometimes we may try to eat more healthily, have cravings, eat more than usual or lose our appetite. Changing your eating habits every now and again is normal. But if food and eating feels like it's taking over your life then it may become a problem. Lots of people think that if you have an eating problem you will be over- or underweight, and that being a certain weight is always associated with a specific eating problem. This is a myth. Anyone, regardless of age, gender or weight, can be affected by eating problems. It's also possible to have problems with eating and keep them hidden – sometimes for very long time.
If someone has an eating problem they might:
- restrict the amount of food they eat
- eat more than they need or feel out of control when they eat
- eat a lot in secret
- feel very anxious about eating or digesting food
- eat lots of food in response to difficult emotions (when they don't feel physically hungry)
- only eat certain types of food or stick to a rigid set of diet rules and feel very anxious and upset if they have to eat something different
- do things to get rid of what they eat (purging)
- stick to rigid rules around what they can and can't eat and how food should look – and feel very upset if they break those rules
- feel strongly repulsed at the idea of eating certain foods
- eat things that are not really food
- be scared of certain types of food or eating in public
- think about food and eating a lot or all the time
- compare their body to other people's and think about their shape or size a lot
- check, test and weigh their body a lot – and base their self-worth on how much they weigh or whether they pass your checks and tests.
Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)
Living with Domestic Violence
Radicalisation and Extremism
Radicalisation is defined as the process by which people come to support terrorism and extremism and, in some cases, to then participate in terrorist activity. A person who holds extreme political or religious views, especially one who advocates illegal, violent, or other extreme action. 'right-wing extremists' as modifier 'extremist groups'. Prevent is 1 of the 4 elements of CONTEST, the government's counter-terrorism strategy. It aims to stop people becoming terrorists or supporting terrorism and provides practical help to prevent people from being drawn into terrorism and ensure they are given appropriate advice and support. The Prevent duty is the duty in the Counter-Terrorism and Security Act 2015 on specified authorities (e.g. schools, colleges and training organisations who access government funding), in the exercise of their functions, to have due regard to the need to prevent people from being drawn into terrorism. Radicalisation is a process by which an individual, or group comes to adopt increasingly extreme political, social, or religious ideals and aspirations that reject or undermine the status quo or undermine contemporary ideas and expressions of the nation. As part of Prevent, ITS are required to teach apprentices about fundamental British values. The five fundamental British values are:
- The rule of law
- Individual liberty
- Mutual respect
- Tolerance of those of different faiths and beliefs
Run, Hide, Tell
The National Police Chiefs' Council (NPCC) has released data on the number of children and young people reported sharing or possessing sexual images of themselves or others. Figures for 2016/17 show that 6,238 sexting offences were recorded by police forces in England and Wales, an increase of 33% on previous year. Analysis of the figures shows that the number of children and young people facing charges in these cases has dropped from 150 in 2014/15 to 63 in 2016/17, with the new outcome 21 recording rule which enables police forces to record sexting offences without criminalising children and young people, most commonly used: the use of outcome 21 rose from 34 in 2014/15 to 2,079 in 2016/17.
Sexually Transmitted Infections
Supporting Apprentices with Mental Health Difficulties
A happy, healthy apprentice is a more productive one! This free service from Remploy will help your apprentices overcome any difficulties they are experiencing at work due to low mood, so that they can remain a valuable asset to your company. The service is delivered by advisors who are fully trained professionals with expertise in mental health and its impact in the workplace.
Your apprentice must refer themselves to this service, which includes:
- Workplace emotional well-being support and advice for six months, tailored to the needs of the apprentice
- Advice on simple adjustments that could be implemented to help individuals fulfil their apprenticeship
- Helping you fully understand what support you can offer to apprentices with low mood (with their permission)
- Help for apprentices to identify successful coping strategies that will support their success
- A step-by-step support plan for apprentices to follow, helping them to get back on track
- Support provided in an appropriate environment, in respect of the apprentice's wishes.
To qualify for this service, individuals must:
- Be in a permanent or temporary apprenticeship (attending or signed off sick)
- Have a mental health condition that has resulted in absence, or is causing difficulties to remain in their apprenticeship.
How to refer an apprentice
Referring an apprentice to Remploy's service is simple, just contact Remploy and they'll do the rest:
Tel: 0300 456 8210
Thrown Out of Home
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